Thin seedlings to 30cm (1ft) apart, or every 5cm (2in) for mini-leaves.
Water before the onset of drought; mulch when the soil is warm and moist.
Cover plants for overwintering in October with cloches or protect the crown with straw or similar material, then cover with fleece.
Birds: Birds, especially pigeons, can cause an array of problems including eating seedlings, buds, leaves, fruit and vegetables.
Remedy: Protect the plants from birds by covering them with netting or fleece. Scarecrows and bird-scaring mechanisms work for a while, but the most reliable method of protection is to cover plants with horticultural fleece or mesh.
Grey mould: Can be a problem in densely sown crops, especially ‘cut and come again’ veg crops. Seedlings suddenly collapse. This is a problem normally in wet conditions, and is usually worse on weak or damaged plants. The mould usually enters through a wound but, under the right conditions, even healthy plants will be infected. You will see fuzzy grey mould on affected buds, leaves, flowers or fruit. Infected plant parts eventually shrivel and die.
Remedy: Sow thinly and when conditions are warm. Hygiene is very important in preventing the spread of grey mould. If you see it, remove the infected material and destroy. Grey mould is encouraged by overcrowding, so make sure you plant your seedlings, plants and squashes at the appropriate distance apart.
No fungicides are approved for use by amateur gardeners against grey mould. Products containing plant and fish oil blends may be used but are unlikely to have much impact.
Downy mildew: Worse in mild, humid weather, the felty mildew makes the leaves unappetising. Well grown plants in gardens are not usually badly affected except in wet weather. Can be a problem in densely sown crops, especially ‘cut and come again’ veg crops. Seedlings suddenly collapse.
Remedy: Sow thinly and when conditions are warm. You can help to prevent this disease by making sure there is plenty of space around seedlings and plants to improve air circulation, watering the soil at the base of the plants, and by choosing mildew resistant varieties.
Cut off the outer leaves first when they are young and tender, working towards the centre. Don't wait until they reach maximum size.
Harvest regularly to ensure a constant supply of tender re-growth.
Harvest cut and come again crops at any stage when seedlings are around 5cm (2in) tall. The thinnings can also be used whole.
Gather mini-leaves as soon as they are usable. They should re-grow if a small stump is left.
ie: Spinach and Chard
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